Innovation and Efficiency Analysis
Jobs are a necessary part of life and everyone needs jobs to make ends meet. Unfortunately, jobs that pay well and provide a good quality of life are few and far between. Even more discouraging to some people is the fact that it can be difficult to secure a good paying job. Jobs are hard to come by these days and many people who have jobs have had to accept lower paying jobs to make ends meet. This has caused a huge increase in the number of people without jobs or those that are under-employed.
In this theory of unemployment, people who have lost their jobs are being forced to look for different jobs. In other words, a customer job, employment, or other job is the functional equivalent of being unemployed. More specifically, a customer job is any activity, usually routine and usually performed at pay, which is undertaken to satisfy another function. People without jobs will try to find social job opportunities, customer job opportunities, or any other kind of job that satisfies some need that the person might have. People who are under-employed or unemployed are not necessarily looking for any particular kind of job; they are just trying to find something that satisfies a need.
Under the jobs-to-be-done theory, there are several categories of jobs. The most obvious ones are those that are performed by the public at large. Examples of such jobs include police officers, firefighters, mechanics, teachers, waitresses, etc. A secondary category of jobs are those performed by private individuals, for which a certain set of skills is required, such as salespeople, business managers, office personnel, etc. Sales jobs, business management jobs, and office personnel jobs are seen by some people as better alternatives than customer jobs (which they see as having poor pay and poor working conditions).
This theory has many advantages. The most obvious one is that it reduces the scope for efficiency. By combining knowledge with a relevant innovation, businesses can eliminate many inefficient procedures and increase productivity. It also reduces opportunities for corruption since the public is in control of choosing how jobs are to be done.
In this theory, the jobs-to-be-done is identified as part of the overall process of the desired outcome. The desired outcome is then analyzed using the appropriate tools. If the desired outcome is determined, then the process for creating the desired outcome is also analyzed. If an innovative process is identified, then it is undertaken. Otherwise, steps that will achieve the desired outcome will be taken. When steps that will achieve the desired outcome are undertaken, then businesses can make use of jobs-to-be-done analysis.
There are three major disadvantages of applying the jobs-to-be-done theory. One is that the process of identifying jobs and analyzing innovative processes is time consuming. Second, in cases where there are multiple innovations, it is difficult to evaluate the relative merits of each. And third, in cases where the innovative process is not identified, it is difficult to demonstrate its relative merits given the lack of supporting empirical evidence.